RELEVANT SECTION AND CHAPTERS
June 2020: ‘Criminal exploitation’ has replaced the previous term ‘county lines’.
Criminal exploitation refers to organised crime gangs / groups who operate in urban areas who supply drugs to suburbs, market and coastal towns; often crossing county borders. The gangs use dedicated mobile phone lines, sometimes known as “deal lines”. They use adults (and children) to move drugs and money.
Organised crime gangs create a base in their chosen target area, usually by taking over the homes of local adults who gang members have identified as vulnerable (see Section 4, Vulnerability Factors). They do this either by force or coercion (known as ‘cuckooing’).
Criminal exploitation is widespread, with gangs from big cities including London, Manchester and Liverpool operating throughout England, Wales and Scotland.
This chapter is a summary of Criminal Exploitation of Children and Vulnerable Adults: County Lines Guidance (Home Office) in relation to adults.
2. Criminal Exploitation Crime Types
The different types of crimes that involve criminal exploitation include:
- drug use and supply;
- gang activity;
- safeguarding offences;
- criminal and sexual exploitation;
- modern slavery;
- and missing persons.
These crimes and the behaviour of the gangs involved, has a ruinous impact on the lives of the adults and local communities who are targeted.
The response to tackle criminal exploitation crimes involves a number of partner agencies of the Leicester, Leicestershire and Rutland Safeguarding Adults Boards including the police, local authorities and voluntary and community sector organisations. It also includes the National Crime Agency and a number of Government departments. See also Modern Slavery Victims: Referral and Assessment Forms (UK Government).
Criminal exploitation crimes operate similarly to other types of abuse or exploitation. Such crimes can:
- still be exploitative even if people seem to consent to being involved;
- involve force and /or enticement and is often accompanied by violence or threats of violence;
- be committed by individuals or groups, males or females, and young people or adults.
Such crimes usually involve an imbalance of power between the abuser and the abused usually related to:
- cognitive ability;
- physical strength;
- access to money or other resources.
Just because a person receives something in exchange for their involvement, this does not make them any less of a victim.
Criminal exploitation often involves some form of exchange, where the victim is asked / told to carry drugs in return for something they want or need, for example:
- other rewards such as status, protection or ‘friendship’ or affection;
- the prevention of threats by gangs / groups being carried out against the victim’s family or friends.
4. Vulnerability Factors
Vulnerability factors for country lines victims include:
- previous experience of neglect, physical and / or sexual abuse, either as a child or adult;
- unsafe or unstable home or homelessness now or in the past (this may be due to domestic violence, parental substance misuse, mental health issues or criminality);
- social isolation or difficulties in forming friendships or relationships;
- no / lack of stable or regular income;
- connections with gang / group members;
- physical or learning disabilities;
- mental health or substance misuse issues – Class A drug users are often targeted as their lifestyles leave them vulnerable to exploitation, particularly in relation to gangs taking over their accommodation.
- history of being in care (particularly those in residential care or with an unsettled care history).
5. Risk Indicators
The following are indicators of a person’s involvement and exploitation. Whilst the guidance references these in relation to young people, they also apply to adults who are targeted:
- missing from home / college or work and being found in another town / city / county;
- unexplained possession of money, clothes, or mobile phone etc;
- receiving an excessive number of texts or phone calls
- involvement with controlling individuals or gangs / groups;
- leaving home without saying where they are going;
- concerns that they have been physically assaulted / have unexplained injuries;
- concerns about them expressed by parents / carers / family / friends;
- known or suspected of carrying weapons;
- significant decline in education or work results / performance;
- associating with group / gang members or isolating themselves from their previous friends or social groups;
- self-harming and / or significant changes in their psychological wellbeing.
Any sudden changes in an adult’s lifestyle should be discussed with them.
6. Adults without Needs for Care and Support
If you believe an adult is being forced to participate in criminal exploitation but they do not have needs for care and support, this is still a crime and you should report this to the police (see Local Contacts).
Investigations into criminal exploitation within Leicestershire Police is referred to as OP Gizmo.